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Pierre de Gigord collection of photographs of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey, 1850-1958, bulk 1853-1930.

Gigord, Pierre de collector.

Available at Special Collections  SPECIAL COLLECTIONS - CONTACT REFERENCE  (96.R.14** ) and other locations()

  • Title:
    Pierre de Gigord collection of photographs of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey, 1850-1958, bulk 1853-1930.
  • Author/Creator: Gigord, Pierre de collector.
  • Creation Date: 1850-1958, bulk 1853-1930.
  • Biographical/Historical Note: Pierre de Gigord is a French business man who compiled the collection over a period of 12 years.
  • Arrangement: Arranged in ten series: Series I. Large format albums, 1852-1920; Series II. Albums of various formats, 1870-1935; Series III. Photographs on loose mounts, ca. 1850-1930, undated; Series IV. Panoramas, 1854-1919; Series V. Card mounted photographs, 1851-1909; Series VI. Tintypes, glass formats and printing blocks, 1890-1900, undated; Series VII. Lantern slides and glass plate negatives, 1850-1910; Series VIII. Stereographs, 1850-1910, undated; Series IX. Photojournalism and press photographs, 1904-1958, undated; Series X. Documentation, 1850-1955, undated.
  • Physical Desc.: 243.7 linear ft. ( 176 boxes, 2 flatfile folders, 1 frame).
  • Summary: Spanning two centuries and roughly one hundred years, the 6,000 plus photographic images in the collection form a visual record of the late years of the Ottoman Empire and the formation and early years of the Republic of Turkey. The collection focuses on cultural and urban images, mainly of Constantinople (Istanbul), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, but other geographic areas, such as the Balkans, and other cities and towns within the empire such as Bursa and Smyrna (İzmir) are included, as are a few images from places such as Greece, Egypt, Jerusalem, India and China. The collection is supported by a small group of pamphlets and offprints regarding photography in the Ottoman Empire and by a small assemblage of photographic ephemera.
    Over 165 photographers, studios and publishers are represented in the collection, and the work of dozens of unknown photographers is also included. While a great many of the photographers are of European origin, prominent photographers of eastern origin include the ethnic Armenian Abdullah brothers, Pascal Sébah, of Armenian and Syrian descent, and Ali Sami Aközer, grandson of Halil Kamil Pasha. Such photographers created images for both foreign and Ottoman consumption, including the sultans themselves. Studios bearing Greek and Armenian surnames are heavily represented among the cartes-de-visites, cabinet cards and other portraits in the collection. Among the other photographers included in the collection are: Nikolia Andreomenos; Apollon; Hippolyte Arnoux; Guillaume Berggren; Félix Bonfils; Ernest de Caranza; Jules Delbet; Roger Fenton; Claude-Marie Ferrier; Frank Mason Good; Gülmez Frères, V. Hissarlian; M. Iranian; Vasssilaki (Basil/Basile) Kargoppoulo; Pow Kee; Gustave Le Gray; G. Lekegian; Alfred de Moustier; Nadar; Christian Paier; Phébus Studio (Bogos Tarkulyan); James Robertson, working alone, or with his partner and brother-in-law Felice Beato; Rubellin and Rubellin et Fils; Adolphe Saum; Sébah & Joaillier (successors to Pascal Sébah); Alex Svoboda; and Pierre Trémaux.
    The collection includes photographic prints made in the most popular nineteenth-and early twentieth-century photographic media, as well as in a number of rare and early techniques. Photographic processes present in the collection include calotype, salted paper, albumen, collodion, and gelatin silver prints; photochroms, autochromes, collotypes, tintypes, and opaltypes. Also included are early poitevin prints (lithographs after photographs).The photographs are found in various sizes and formats including loose and mounted prints, some from disbound albums; studio portraits such as cartes-de-visites; cabinet cards and other card-mounted photographs; stereographs; glass plate negatives; lantern slides; photomechanical and real photo postcards; and panoramas. There are 64 photograph albums in the collection.
    The earliest photographs in the collection include Claude-Marie Ferrier's glass lanterns slides and glass plate negatives of Istanbul and views of the Bosporus from the 1850s; images of Istanbul, Athens, Jerusalem, and Egypt and Ottoman portraits and types, made in the 1850s by James Robertson and Felice Beato; and the poitevin prints made after photographs that Pierre Trémaux made during his 1853-1854 journey to the archaeological sites of Asia Minor.
    In addition to the twelve joined panoramas of the city and environs there are also numerous general views of specific geographic areas and neighborhoods. Monuments frequently represented include mosques and churches such as the Süleymaniye mosque, the Sultan Ahmed or Blue Mosque, the Ortayköy mosque and the former mosque and church of Santa Sophia. Palaces include the Topkapi Palace and Dolmabahçe Palace. Istanbul's Roman past is represented by views of the Hippodrome and its Serpent Column, Walled Obelisk and Obelisk of Theodosius, and by the Burnt Column and the Valens aqueduct; while the city's medieval Genoan history is represented by views of the Galata Tower.
    The Bosporus strait, and the seas it joins - the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara - are extensively documented in views, and boating and fishing scenes, as is the Golden Horn and its bridges, and especially the Galata Bridge. The Ottoman fortresses built to defend the Bosphorus (Rumeli Hisari built by Mehmed II, and Anadolu Hisari built by Bayezid I) are frequently depicted. Life on the Bosphorus and surrounding seas is portrayed in abundant views of boating, both for pleasure and transportation, fishing and fishermen, and the by the waterfront residences in both humble villages and the yalis or villas of wealthy residents. Frequent depictions of steamers attest to the bustling international shipping and tourist industries.
    The collection contains a significant number of depictions of Turkish types, including both occupational portraits and representatives of the many ethnic groups who comprised the greater Ottoman Empire. Costume is an enduring interest, beginning with James Robertson's rare hand-colored portraits of women and types. The "dame turc" is a prevalent theme. While the occupational portraits are often posed, there are also numerous everyday scenes and street scenes that include food and dry goods vendors, cobbler's stalls and so forth. Agricultural scenes and grain markets as well as the tobacco industry represent rural Turkey. While a great many of the people portrayed in the collection are identified by type or ethnicity rather than name, the collection does contain a good number of portraits of sultans, and named pashas, military leaders, dignitaries and the middle and upper class patrons of the numerous portrait studios found in the cities.
    In the late nineteenth century there is an increased representation of historical events that continues into the early twentieth century. These range from state visits and ceremonies, to the opening of railways, and to events related to World War I such as the Battle of Gallipoli and the Caucasus Campaign, the occupation of Turkey by allied troops after the war, and the formation of the Republic of Turkey.
  • Language: French
  • Form/Genre: Albumen prints -- China -- 19th century
    Albumen prints -- Egypt -- 19th century
    Albumen prints -- Greece -- 19th century
    Albumen prints -- India -- 19th century
    Albumen prints -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Albumen prints -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Cabinet photographs -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Cabinet photographs -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Calotype prints (positive prints) -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Cartes-de-visite (card photographs) -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Collodion prints -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Collodion prints -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Collotypes (prints) -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Collotypes (prints) -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Gelatin silver prints -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Gelatin silver prints -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Glass plate negatives -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Group portraits -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Group portraits -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Lantern slides -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Lithographs -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Opaltypes -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Panoramas -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Panoramas -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Photochroms -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Photograph albums -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Photograph albums -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Photographic postcards -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Photographic postcards -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Salted paper prints -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Stereographs -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Stereographs -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Stereoscopic photographs -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Stereoscopic photographs -- Turkey -- 20th century
    Tintypes (prints) -- Turkey -- 19th century
    Photographs, Original
  • Subjects: Ayasofia Müzesi Dolmabahçhe Sarayi Hippodrome of Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) Süleymaniye Camii (Istanbul, Turkey) Sultanahmet Camii (Istanbul, Turkey) Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi Architecture -- Turkey Architecture, Byzantine -- Turkey Islamic architecture -- Turkey Boats and boating -- Turkey Bridges -- Turkey Clothing and Dress -- Turkey Columns -- Turkey Fishing -- Turkey Fortification -- Turkey Indigenous peoples -- Turkey Black Sea -- Description and travel Bosporus (Turkey) -- Description and travel Bursa (Turkey) -- Description and travel China -- Description and travel Egypt -- Description and travel Greece -- Description and travel India -- Description and travel Golden Horn (Turkey) -- Description and travel İzmir (Turkey) -- Description and travel Marmara, Sea of (Turkey) -- Description and travel Turkey -- Antiquities Turkey -- Description and travel Turkey -- Kings and rulers
  • Contributors: Ali, Sami, 1866-1936. Andreomenos, Nikolai. Arnoux, Hippolyte. Berggren, G. (Guillaume), 1835-1920. Bonfils, Félix, ǂd 1831-1885. Caranza, Ernest de. Delbet, Jules. Fenton, Roger, ǂd 1819-1869. Ferrier, Claude Marie, ǂd 1811-1889. Good, Frank Mason. Hissarlian, V. Iranian, M. Kargopoulo, Vassilaki. Le Gray, Gustave, ǂd 1820-1882. Lékégian, G. Moustier, Alfred de. Nadar, Félix, ǂd 1820-1910. Paier, Christian. Pow Kee., Robertson, James, 1813-1888. Rubellin., Saume, Adolphe. Sébah, J. Pascal. Svoboda, A. Tremaux, P. (Pierre) Abdullah frères. Gulmez Frères (Firm) Phébus (Firm) Robertson & Beato. Sebah & Jollier.
  • ID/Accession Number: 1366-510
    96.R.14
    96.R.14*
    96.R.14**
  • Access/Rights: Open for use by qualified researchers.
  • OCLC Record Number: 79926796
  • Source: GRI Library Catalog

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